VI. Prisons and Interrogations
Many of those detained in Dzhezkazgan concentration camps intended only for political prisoners show that every day the officers gave the soldiers that started the watch an order, “Soldiers, remember, that you are watching after the worse enemies of the country.” Father Hilyariy Wilk recalls that during imprisonment he was called “the Pope’s fascist” and “… terribly disrespected me and the other priests for our loyalty to the Successor of Peter and the bishops of Rome”[i].
Father Vladyslav Dvoretskyi was arrested in 1922 in Kamyanets-Podilskyi, because he hid valuable liturgical items during one of the seizures. He was sentenced to death as the worst enemy of the working class. Deported to the camp, he became permanently disabled from torture and was never able to walk without assistance. Parishioners describe the life of a priest in the Polish episcopate, including Cardinal Augustus Hlondu: “The life of this martyr is very difficult. He is suffering not only physically, but also always fears to be deported again. Not only is he devoid of any amenities, but most necessary means of existence. People are poor and intimidated; they are unable or afraid to help him, so the priest is at risk of dying of hunger and cold”[ii].
Father Felix Lubchynskyy was detained seven times, the last time on April 12, 1927, in Moscow. Of his the criminal acts we read: “A brave and persistent priest, not afraid of anyone or anything. Deported for ten years in Solovki, torture weakened nervous system”[iii]. After imprisonment on Anzer Island, he became ill with brain cancer and died at the age of 45. Among the most active was a prisoner of Solovki, Father Makarios Karovets. On January 13, 1930, the KGB sought to evict him, regardless of his opinion. In his interrogation protocol one can read: “I have been in the camp for twelve years and would like to live as many years in Ukraine; if God allowed me to work there, I would walk.” God heard those prayers: he was actually appointed to the city Shargorod in Ukraine, where he went by boat on the Yenisei. Out of the 950 people who were deported with him only 50 survived[iv].
Here are memories of another priest: “Almost all of us, priests, are old and disabled, but we are often assigned to do the hard work, such as, digging foundations for houses in the frozen ground or carry different things at a distance of 15 km during winter time. Often we are made to be on watch outside for sixteen hours without rest. After the hard work one needs to rest, but in our house each person has less than the 1/16 cubic meters of air necessary for life»[i]
To kill clergymen, the government created special prisons, which were located in Sokolniki near Moscow, Lefortovo, in Butyrka, in Lubyanka in Moscow, in Kiev, Kharkov and Yaroslavl, near Volga. The mumber of persecuted was steadily increasing, especially in 1932 when the “Five-Year Plan for atheism” started, which goal, among others, was the destruction of all churches and believers and “the destruction of the idea of God.” In 1937, there were 200,000 cases of repression and 100,000 cases of death sentence. On March 5, 1937, the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU authorized the distribution of mass terror. Priests from Volyn, who had been in prison in Lukyanivka in Kyiv for 30 years, stated: “There were 8 of us in the small cell underground. There we were praying on the Rosary together, singing Lent songs, songs for the Mother of God, and we were conducting lessons: Father Bukovynskiy-history lessons, Jepetskyi – theology and dogma… I was talking about the social problems of our work at the Catholic Youth Association”[ii]. When the GPU passed the judgement, they sent priests to the most rigorous concentration camps. The proof of that is a letter of Father Kuchinsky: “One day Father Bukovynskiy was deported to Ural, soon the same thing happened to me.” In the concentration camps of the Gulag were murderers and other criminals. Once Father Kuchynskiy arrived there, they robbed him, and because he was defending his simple property, he was beaten up so severely, that he fainted. Hunger was so strong that some prisoners were eating the scales and heads of the whitebaits (a kind of fish) that they found in the garbage piles.
In the 1940s, Father Joseph Kuczynski had to work with a hoe and a shovel in the camp in Vorkuta, near the Arctic Ocean. He was often also expected to mow, standing in the water. Often in the bushes one could find the remains of the deceased prisoner, who was thrown there by one of the workers of the cemetery who didn’t want to dig the grave in the frozen ground.
Father Fedorovych was doing a shoemaker’s work and in 1947 he wrote: “Once again I write at night. Yesterday was Sunday, and I couldn’t even find a free moment to write. After twelve they changed our working conditions, and all of us, disabled, were put to make heels for women’s shoes. In the morning until seven o’clock I am doing everything that is possible and necessary, and then I work until 5 o’clock in the evening. During this time I managed to make seven heels, but it is required to make seventeen. Soon it will be faster and easier. I keep hitting my fingers with the hammer, but there are fewer wounds now. The doctor to whom I spoke about the fingers that bend badly, said that soon I get used to it”[i]. F. Zygmund Halunyevich in one of the letters to his sister Wanda from April 26, 1947, wrote: “Dear Wanda! My medical file indicates that there is no change – neither for better nor for worse. I don’t hope for better, because for that I need, first of all, the food and medical treatment. I am thankful to God that I do not feel worse. Three months of continuous work in the mine gave me in addition this disability (hernia), which can be cured only by surgery; also I will not be able to work for six months because from 1 November 1946 to April of 1947 I will stay in the hospital. I also have gastritis, but so far no positive results. I have frostbite of fingers because of working in a quarry in the cold: with pain, I can only move my index finger and pinky on my left hand. In the morning, it is particularly difficult for me to straighten the arm, even if I massage it. Pneumonia and bronchitis are chronic illnesses, so I had a chest X-ray to rule out tuberculosis, but I do not have a fever. Trying not to get angry and not to lose courage, and it is working: “Do not hesitate, do not worry, do not give in, handle everything as the Christian and as a priest, handle it as penance, sacrifice, and God will reward you,” – I say it to myself, and in that way save my nervous system. In difficult times I call Providence and ask to give me a feeling that He cares. It is not a lack of trust, it is only a request to increase my faith, strengthen the belief that He supports me. In the morning prayer, I think about my daily life, the unreality of any changes, about the signs that were given to me by God and that are difficult to count because there are so many of them, and so with new strength I am grasping onto Him with faith, ready for any suffering, but never denying Him. May God give me this grace.”[ii]
Often people slept in their coats; ate rotten potatoes and bread without salt. They had to work in the mines that were 80 meters deep. Father Andrew Hladysevych remembers that once at seven o’clock in the evening they finished work. They hadn’t even finished eating dinner when they were called for the call-over and were made fun of by being made to march and salute their superiors. After this humiliation, part of them were sent back to do a night work, the so-called “work of the night onslaught”. Immersed in cold water up to the waist, in a strong wind, they had to catch pieces of wood in the water. In exile in Vorkuts, Father Homitskyy worked second and third shift during the polar night, in more than 40-degree cold that penetrated through his torn clothes – unloading wagons that were arriving from the south with frozen sand, which had to be done very quickly because wagons could not stand on the tracks for a long time. Three of them were doing this work, taking turns going to warm their feet. In moments of rest all gathered in a corner of the wagon and along with the priest were saying “Comfort of the patient” in order to have the strength to survive and return home. After a meager meal, always hungry, they went to sleep on bare beds until the get up time: “Get up!” They usually slept in turns, they use snow boots as pillows, wrap their legs in cloths, and lent their hats and gloves to others”.
Nikonov talks about the dramatic fate of the prisoners in the camp, how they had been weakened by the long journey, a thorough search, confused because of the audacity of new guards and forced to obey all orders without any objections. It was a horrible sight – to see priests and bishops in cassocks, elderly monks and also famous scientists continuously marching under the command of a scoundrel, one of those who reproached the name of God the most, who would work them without rest until complete exhaustion, and all of this with a foreman constantly screaming at them making, them loading accumulated pieces. Everybody was moving like atoms – without a sense of time and space, unable to figure out how many hours they worked, whether it was day or night, or to distinguish the white nights from day.
Most priests were kept in prisons for political prisoners in Yaroslavl near Volga, which was famous for its brutality from the imperial times. A prisoner was transported in a truck under the watch of 5 policemen. He was laid on the floor with his hands tied behind his back with the spare tire on top of him. In this position he could not see and did not know in which direction he was taken. He could guess that they have arrived by the sound of the brakes and by the sound of doors opening. Then the prisoner was taken downstairs, where he had to endure torture again. He was taken into a room, stripped naked and searched. They took away everything he had. If someone had some food with him, it was immediately taken and thrown in the trash. Everything was recorded in the protocol. The prisoner was shaved, and after a shower, he was taken naked to the commandant of the camp. The latter checked his personal information and asked about his health; then he read a long list of orders that the prisoner had to follow. Then the prisoner was given clothes and taken to a group or a single room. Prisoners were demanded to keep complete silence. In case of absolute necessity, they could whisper their requests. They were also required to stand by the window with their hands behind their backs during the morning and evening inspection; look in the eyes of the inspector and answer his questions in whisper; never ask questions, or say the name and surname, but only the number obtained upon arrival to prison. They were obligated to a daily walk. They always walked with their number plate, regardless of weather conditions, with downcast eyes. They were given a lean meal: some soup, peas, salad, a piece of meat or fish for dinner. In the morning and in the evening, they were given only a piece of bread, sometimes with jam or beet, and barley coffee, slightly sweetened. If someone did not eat, the meal had to be returned, with the explanation why he did not eat. One could go to the library to read children’s books – there were no magazines or newspapers. One could send home a postcard with ready-made text, every two or three months. After solitary confinement, many experienced negative changes in mentality and behavior. “He only spoke quietly, looked for solitude, peace, and isolated himself from others”[i].
Those who were rebellious were transferred to the cooler: rooms with iron walls and ceiling, low and narrow, where the bed was a metal board without mattress. Before being put there, a prisoner was completely stripped and was given a piece of bread (300g) and a glass of warm water once a day. In such conditions, nobody could survive for more than ten days; then they were transferred to a hospital where they were kept until recovery. For the slightest violation, prisoners were beaten and were closed in “cabins” – stone rooms without heating, where they were held until their behavior was “corrected”. After the “cabin,” 90% of prisoners were sick with pneumonia and bronchitis.
These are some reminiscences of Father Nowicki’s of the time spent in that cell: “You cannot knock on the door, you have to wait until the supervisor opens the window. Because I knocked on the door after being imprisoned there for one week, I was put in the cooler for 24 hours, thank God it was only 24 hours. During my imprisonment our cell was forbidden to go for a walk for the entire month twice, which meant no light and fresh air for that time. The first time, it was because we said that the bread is full of sand, and a second time – because we did not eat the soup, in which there were many white worms”[i].
Father Yoan Zhmyhrodskyy talks about 1930: “The prison began with the closet. A person that was just arrested yet strong enough and able to argue and defend their dignity, was locked in this closet, where there was only a small light bulb and a chair, and sometimes one had to stand up and in the dark. The person was kept that way in a complete silence for 24 hours. With the first signs that the person was broken, they began interrogation. Some prisoners insulted the judge and instructor. This mistake allowed persecutors to mercilessly torture prisoners. On the sheet of paper a pencil-written note to a judge, comrade Gradov, by a priest, Zhmyhrodskyy after many interrogations: “I am in a terrible condition, I haven’t slept for 8 days, I cannot eat anything, because I have a very bad stomach ache. Please have a compassion on me. I do not even have a penny, and you have my 20 rubles. How many times have I asked you to give it to me for the medication, but to no results. Zhmyhrodskyy.”[i]
Also, Father Andrew Hladysevych wanted to stay and be arrested rather than leave his people. Indeed, when one night the wife of one of the officers came to him to warn him that the government had already issued a decree for his arrest, and advised him to flee immediately, he did not run away and so that way began his Way of the Cross. First, he was adjudicated in Volodymyr-Volynskyy, later in Lutsk. Day and night he was subjected to severe torture: they stuck needles under fingernails. In the cell where it was impossible to even sit down, where the water was dripping down and clothes were freezing, a person could not handle it and started beating on the door, demanding to be let out. In this way the KGB forced Father Andriy to cooperate. The process lasted almost six months. Father was kept in a terrible prison, where the walls were covered with blood from fleas that were biting him[i].
For priests, camp and exile had deep meaning: Their suffering planned by God’s Providence, was an opportunity to help others. Here is one of many examples: Father Joseph Kuczynski, who worked in Dniprodzerzhyns’k, was sentenced in 1945 for 10 years. After being released from prison he again began to proclaim the word of God in Kazakhstan, and then two years later he again was sentenced to a seven-year term. How deeply he valued his work as a priest, especially among the Poles in Kazakhstan, who had not had a priest for many years! One can feel it in his words: “It’s hard, really hard to go back for another seven years in prison, especially after already being there for ten, but it is worth doing in order to carry the Good News to those people who are left there”. Remembering his stay in the camps in Vorkuta, he writes: “I am more and more convinced that God allows these cruelties to the authorities in order to give spiritual care to people who are the most deprived of God”[i]. Some friends of Father Kuchynski survived the same punishment: Father Bronislaw Dzhepetskyy was sentenced to 15 years in prison, Father Wladyslaw Bukowinski for 13 years. Another priest who spent 16 years in prison recalls: “Oh, what a long year! There is plenty of time to think! One does it three hundred and three times here, when you wake up in the barracks in the morning, when you stand in the cold and when you work in the rain, when you are covered in snow and when you are standing motionless in the cold. During three hundred and thirty evenings waiting to discover whether or not you will be granted a pardon during the evening gathering. In the morning you go to work. Come back. Think about it, leaning over 603 bowls of soup. You think while lying on the bunk when waking and when falling asleep. Neither radio nor the books hinder it because, thank God, we don’t have them here. And this is not for one year, but ten, twenty-five …”[xiv].
For those who were not prepared for the suffering in prison, these methods had a great destructive power. Even if one was convicted and had strong enough faith, it was difficult to live through the tortures. Priests and believers were interrogated at night because waking up, a person cannot think clearly right away, which makes him or her more vulnerable. Threats, combined with lack of sleep and sitting in an uncomfortable position on a stool, dim light, fear and an undefined future darkened the mind and weakened the will, so that the person ceased to be him- or herself. In these circumstances, a person was able to admit everything that the executioner wanted. They were told: “If you are not sincere in your confession – we will not let you sleep”.
Sometimes they insidiously let the prisoner sit on the soft couch which especially reminded them about sleep. The supervisor, who was sitting nearby, beat the helpless prisoner on his feet every time the prisoner closed his eyes. Here’s how one witness described his feelings after torture: “dizzy from loss of blood; eyes are so dry, as if someone is holding a hot iron in front of my face; tongue is dried out from thirst, everything hurts even from the slightest movement; spasms are choking in the throat”[i]. Lack of sleep was the main method of torture during interrogations that took place at night. The interrogated did not sleep for five nights a week. Executioners were changing, so they were always full of energy and they were merciless. During interrogations there were always three officials who worked in three “teams”. From the protocols we know that in 1930 interrogations of Father Fedorovich lasted for three months with 40 of them during night. He recalls: “In the evening I fell asleep, and an hour or an hour and a half later, soldier came and shouted: “Come along!” Then I was led down the hallway to the room for interrogations. In the hallway, when we met someone, we had to turn away to face the wall – it’s the rule in prison. Then a conversation began. I was kept on a small round stool until midnight or even longer. Several times in a row they continued interrogating me until five in the morning, and sleeping during daytime was prohibited. One of these days I returned to the cell, knelt on the mattress against the wall to pray for a little bit. The supervisor saw it through the window and said: “This is not allowed. You are sleeping on your knees!” After four nights without sleep it seemed that mice ran along the walls, that is how tired I was. I felt dizzy: what would have happened to me if this interrogation continued? Fortunately, this time torture lasted only 4 nights. On the fifth night, I was lying on a mattress and I saw a small spider. I do not like spiders, because as a child they bit a few times and I swelled up, but now I thought: “You’re good, now you do not bite me. And these people are much worse than you”. On one of those nights the instructor that looked like a hangman came with my judge Motrichka. The instructor really wanted to see me. They talked until morning, and then said one to another: “Oh, Fedorovych finished praying and it rained.” I really prayed when they were talking. When the instructor was leaving, he asked: “Do you believe in God?” In reply to my affirmative answer he said: “So God exists? He is in you?” When he was exiting he hit me with hatred, because he wanted to hit God inside of me”[ii].
The greatest torment that lasted for weeks was a cell with such a large number of prisoners that there wasn’t even enough space on the floor, and they were forced to trample on each other’s feet. One could not move at all – they were sitting on the feet of their neighbors. Father Joseph Sovinskyy was together with 140 other prisoners in the prison in Butyrka in a cell designed for 25 people. In Lubyanka, where the majority of Catholic priests resided, there was only one meter of the floor for three people. There were no windows or ventilation, and body heat and respiration were raising temperature in the room to 40-45 degrees Centigrade. Everyone was wearing underwear only, and sitting on winter clothes. The bodies were so close together, one encountered eczema. People remained this way for weeks without air or water; they were given only soup and tea in the morning. “On the ground! On your knees! Take everything off!” So decided the regime; therefore, the guards had absolute power, and nothing was subject to objections. A naked person loses self-confidence, he or she is unable to speak confidently, like a dressed person would. The interrogation began. Naked prisoners were coming in, carrying their clothes. Around them were soldiers, armed and alert. What did prisoners think about? Maybe they wanted to be shot and thrown into the gas chambers? The guards were very rude, they wouldn’t even say one word in a normal tone. Their task was to “frighten and crush.” Olehnovych writes: “If you’re a bad citizen of the Soviet Union, we will force you to fulfill our will, you will beg us on your knees! Can’t remember? We’ll help you to remember! You do not want to write? We will help you! Want to think? In solitary confinement and 300 grams of bread!” Another soldier said this: “This is wrong. Later, you will probably realize that it is better to fulfill our requirements. But you will understand it when it will be too late, when we break you like this pencil”[iii].
The worst torment for monks and priests in these circumstances were doubts that they were feeling after fatigue or physical breakdown. “What can this small group of priests do in a concentration camp? What can they do, scattered throughout the huge territory of the Soviet Union, in order to create the opposition against atheism and propaganda against the Church and religion? How can the Church survive in this system of total persecution?” The number of priests due to the closure of seminaries was intensely declining. Those who continued in the faith, and sought God, did not approach priests in a fear of being noticed. All of these were taking away hope for a better future.
Father Jan Olszanski, as Father superior in the village Manykivtsi recalls one interesting fact. He heard that there was a monk in Italy, who predicted the future. So together with Fr. Bronislaw Miretskiy who worked in Pidvolochysk and Haluschyntsi, in 1963, they wrote him a letter: “We are worried, unsure, do not know what to do because of the repressions in the Soviet Union.” Soon they received the laconic reply: “Continue!” This monk was Father Pio[i].
Father Keppas was condemned because he was considered an organizer of spy ring abroad and was also accused of having connections with the Pope, “the greatest enemy of the Soviet Union.” In order to get information from him, agents woke the priest up at night, interrogated, beat him and then put him back in a cell. It was endless. In Khmelnitsky region from 16 January to 19 April 1930, he was interrogated 27 times for about 6 hours each time. Interrogation began usually around 10 or 11 o’clock at night. During this time, the victim was beaten and tortured, and finally sentenced to seven years in a concentration camp[ii] .
In addition to cold, hunger and false executions, sleep deprivation and beatings were not uncommon. They were very painful, especially when an investigator beat foot bones with his boot. Reflecting on his past and stories of other prisoners, Karpunych Braven counts 52 methods of torture. For example, breaking fingers on the table, bending them in the opposite direction. Another method, beating joints with an iron stick. Another one was knocking out teeth. In NKVD in Novorossiysk a special device was invented for pulling out nails, under which investigators first put needles. They also hit prisoners on the back until they bled, and then poured salt water over the wounds or broke the spine[iii].
In 1973 in Polonne, Father Bernard Mickiewicz was arrested, because during a search the police found texts of sermons for parents: “We need to teach children not only to believe in God, but also to adhere to the Commandments of God.” Father was sentenced to three years in prison for anti-Soviet propaganda. For the judge it was obvious because the book of the revelations of Our Lady of Fatima, where the Virgin Mary asked the children to pray for the conversion of Russia, was found at the priest’s place. Father Mitskevich asked a girl to type on a typewriter a text that the Communists would not like, but she did not have time to do it. Called to court as a witness, she described in detail what the priest ask her to do and how she could not finish it because of the arrival of the police. But it was not a campaign against the Soviet Union. In spite of this, the priest was convicted. Father Bernard tells of a sentence this way: “When I was given the last word, I said that I don’t ask for pardon, because I’m not guilty, but I want the war on evil to be declared in the Lviv region. Martin Luther King, assassinated in the United States for the defense of human rights, said that it doesn’t matter how many years a person will live, but it is important how they live. I think that in prison a person can be free as a child of God … On July 20, 1974, the verdict was announced. On my birthday, 20 August 20, 1974, the newspaper “Pravda” published an article about this trial, full of false accusations concerning my persona. During the process, not only the room but the entire street in front of the court was full. After the verdict, when I was in a truck, a youth threw red flowers in my direction and shouted, ‘Father, we are with you.’ It was pathetic.”[iv] In 1953, after the liberation of majority of the prisoners of the GULAG, and after the Twentieth Party Congress, there was no particular threat to the faithful, but the fear still existed and continued its job. It was enough to just recall the terror in order to paralyze the will: “Memories about terror burdened in hearts and no one believed that Stalin was really dead. There wasn’t a family which didn’t suffer from persecution, but nobody talked about it out loud. For example, I’ve never talked about prison or camp in the presence of my friends, and they never asked about it. Fear was quite deep in their soul.”[v]
[i]H. M. WILK OFM Cap, Ty nie zginiesz, Lublin 2001, с. 153.
[ii]M. LENARDOWICZ, Na wyspach tortur i śmierci. Pamiętnik z Sołówek, Warszawa 1930, cc. 51-54.
[iii]Documenti, La Chiesa romanocattolica, 27451 P. F. in Archivio Segreto dei Bolsceviki dell’Ucraina, f. D. 5432, c. 12.
[iv]F. OLECHNOWICZ, Prawda o Sowietach. Wrażenia z 7-letniego pobytu w więzieniach sołowieckich 1927-1933, Warszawa 1937, c. 101.
[v]I. OSIPOWA , Duchowni katoliccy na Sołówkach, в AA. VV., Skazani jako „szpiedzy watykanu”. Z historii Koscioła katolickiego w ZSRR 1918-1956, Red. R. Dzwonkowski SAC, Ząbki 1998, c. 124.
[vi]H. DĄBKOWSKI, Kresowi Księża harcerze od Kamieńca Podolskiego do Nowogródka. Kościół rzymskokatolicki na kresowych ziemiach polskich, Warszawa 1929,c. 53.
[vii]T. FEDOROWICZ, Drogi opatrzności…, с. 371.
[viii]T. FEDOROWICZ, Drogi opatrzności…, сс. 49-50.
[ix]R. DZWONKOWSKI SAC, Losy duchowieństwa katolickiego w ZSSR 1917-1939. Martyrologium, Lublin 1998,сc. 90-91.
[x]D. NOWICKI, O odprawianiu nabożeństw przez duchowieństwo katolickie, uwięzione na Wyspach Sołowieckich (lata 1925-1932), ms, s.d.
[xi]Interrogatorio, Sacerdoti della Chiesa romanocattolica, в Archivio Centrale delle Associazioni Sociali dell’Ucraina, f. P. 62123, с. 26.
[xii] М. СИВА-КИРІС, Історія життя о. Андрія Гладисевича, Київ 2000, с. 23.
[xiii]T. FEDOROWICZ, Drogi opatrzności, Duchowienstwo polskie w wiezieniach, łagrach i na zesłaniu w ZSRR. Pamietniki i dokumenty, Red. R. Dzwonkowski SAC,Wyd. III, vol. I, Lublin 1998, с. 12.
[xiv]A. SOLZENICYN, Arcipelago Gulag I1: 1918-1956, Milano 1990,с. 603.
[xv]F. OLECHNOWICZ, Prawda o Sowietach. Wrażenia z 7-letniego pobytu w więzieniach sołowieckich 1927-1933, Warszawa 1937,с. 69.
[xvi]T. FEDOROWICZ, Drogi opatrzności…, сс. 106-108.
[xvii]F. OLECHNOWICZ, Prawda o Sowietach. Wrażenia z 7-letniego pobytu w więzieniach sołowieckich 1927-1933, Warszawa 1937,с. 108.
[xviii]AA. VV., Pasterz i twierdza. Księga Jubileuszowa dedykowana księdzu biskupowi Janowi Olszańskiemu ordynariuszowi diecezji w Kamieńcu Podolskim, Red. J. Wołczański, Kraków-Kamieniec Podolski 2001, c. 15.
[xix]A. WENGER, La persecuzione dei cattolici in Russia, gli uomini, i processi, lo sterminio. Dagli archivi del KGB, Milano 1999, с. 111.
[xx]F. OLECHNOWICZ, Prawda o Sowietach…, с. 139.
[xxi]S. KURLANDZKI MIC – L. DANILECKA, Panie do kogóż pójdziemy? Marianie na Ukrainie, Warszawa 2001,с. 130.
[xxii]N. WERTH, «Uno stato contro il suo popolo. Violenze, repressioni, terrori nell’Unione Sovietica», в AA.VV., Il libro nero del comunismo. Crimini, Terrore, Repressione, Milano 2002, с. 242.